Psoriasis is a chronic non-infectious skin disease accompanied by the appearance of a reddish-pink rash and peeling of the skin.
The term psoriasis means itchy skin. These are the symptoms most clearly characterize this problem of non-communicable diseases of the skin. The skin cell division occurs almost thirty times faster. Since they do not have time to ripen fully, intercellular contacts are lost. This leads to the formation of characteristic scales. Involved in a pathological process and the immune system of the body: protective elements are directed against its own cells which causes chronic inflammation in the lesion. We will describe in more detail the question of what is psoriasis and how to treat it.
Types of psoriasis
There are many classifications of psoriasis, which are based on the severity of the condition, the nature of the lesions, localization of lesions, etc. most Often are the following types of diseases:
- Plaque (vulgaris) is a big part of all types of psoriasis. It is characterized by the appearance of the traditional plaques covered with white-gray scales.
- Guttate psoriasis is second most common, and is diagnosed in every tenth patient. While there are numerous and relatively small eruptions with scales on the entire surface of the body.
- Pustular variant is characterized by the formation of pustules.
- In Palmar-plantar psoriasis elements are located on respective parts of the skin.
- Exudative variant differs in that the scales are impregnated with a yellowish liquid that leaks out from the body. Due to this, they clump together and change color.
- Erythroderma is a severe form of the disease, as it affected almost the whole skin surface and occur systemic reactions (fever, swollen lymph nodes, breach of the blood).
- Psoriatic arthritis is characterized by joint involvement.
Stages of pathologic process there are distinguished progressive, stable and worsens psoriasis.
The symptoms of psoriasis
Most often, when the development of psoriasis on the skin's surface becomes stained, covered with grayish white scales, which are easily separated by touch. This symptom is associated another name for the disease – psoriasis.
Localization of lesions
As a rule, changes the skin, which is located on the extensor surfaces (elbows, knees) of the major joints. Favorite localization is the border of the scalp, and places that are constantly subjected to trauma or friction. However, this characteristic cannot be considered diagnostic criterion, since atypical forms of lichen scaly affected and other surface skin.
Characteristics of plaques
The size of lesions can be different. The primary elements are considered to be small papules of bright red or maroon color. Over time, their size increases significantly, they also tend to merge. In 90% of cases signs of psoriasis include the education standard of the plaques, which are characterized by the triad:
- Stearic spot is characterized by easy removal of grey-white scales, similar in appearance to shavings from a candle.
- If you continue to scrape the surface of the plaque, then the removal of all the scales will appear a thin white film called the terminal.
- Symptom blood dew can detect when you remove the terminal protectors. Damage to the papillae of the skin will not occur excessive bleeding and drip.
There are some nominal signs of disease:
- Psoriatic lesions appear in areas exposed to trauma (rubbing, scratching, etc.). It is characteristic of advanced stages of the disease.
- Education pale ring around the newly formed papules, not covered with scales. It is a kind of vascular reaction and indicates further progression of the disease.
These symptoms of psoriasis often enable you to distinguish the disease from other dermatoses such currents.
Besides the skin, psoriasis affects the nails, hair and joints and internal organs. Changes in the nail plate starts with the Foundation and are characterized by hyperkeratosis under the nails. In the future, the surface has striations, and formed the pitting (a symptom of a thimble). Psoriatic arthritis begins with the destruction of the small joints, accompanied by pain and inflammation phenomena.
For depriving the characteristic scaly itchy skin. Resulting in the scratching, surface cracks and the tendency to bleeding. In places of trauma can multiply pathogenic microbes, leading to secondary infections and the development of dermatitis.
Causes of psoriasis
Non-communicable nature of the disease was established in the 19th century. Since that time continuously conducted numerous studies examining the causes of psoriasis. However, as with most systemic diseases, to find out one single reason still fails. There are several theories, each of which has scientific confirmation:
- Immune theory that disease is the result of various dysfunctions of the immune system. The anticipated development of the autoimmune response, resulting in thicker skin accumulates a large number of T-lymphocytes. This leads to chronic inflammation and thickening of the affected area. The theory is confirmed by the fact that biopsies of psoriatic plaques can be detected a high concentration of immune cells, as well as the fact that in the course of the disease to a large extent depend on the use of immune drugs.
- The hereditary factor is associated with congenital disorders of genetic material. Scientists have found several DNA regions, a mutation which can occur in patients with scaly ringworm. These genes are mainly responsible for the maturation of immune cells (T-lymphocytes). So when they break the likelihood of psoriasis is significantly increased. If the parents suffer from this skin disease, the risk of dermatosis in children is 50% higher.
- Genetic theory similar to inheritance, but in this case are regarded genes, mutation of which can occur at any age.
- Endocrine factor is confirmed by the fact that most patients with psoriasis there are any changes in the endocrine organs (pituitary, pancreas and thyroid gland). In addition, these patients often present violation of the synthesis and excretion of melatonin. Also, the disease may have level of sex hormones.
- Stress and shock can lead to the onset of the disease or to the aggravation of his symptoms. Due to the release of blood hormones starts a series of biochemical reactions that result in scaly rashes on the skin.
- Exchange theory is based on the fact that scientists have identified elevated levels of lipids in patients with psoriasis. In addition, during exacerbation of the disease altered nitrogen metabolism and increased the overall level of toxins in the body.
In fact, all the causes of psoriasis can be classified into two groups:
- violation of division of skin cells;
- change the immune system.
All the external factors (environment, stress, injuries) only aggravate the disease, but cannot act as one single cause.
Quality of life in patients with psoriasis
Along with other chronic diseases, psoriasis can significantly impair quality of life of patients who may experience both physical and psychological discomfort. There are often difficulties with employment and social adaptation. So, sometimes intense itching interferes with normal rest, and plaques on the hands can limit performance.
It is especially hard transferred scaly rash on the scalp. This is due to the fact that these plaques cause some rejection, so that the patients become closed, it may even be social anxiety.
Stress due to dissatisfaction with their appearance, constant pain or itching, and immune disorders often lead to development of mental disorders (increased anxiety, depression, social isolation). Only a quarter of patients with psoriasis does not feel psychological discomfort from the remaining patients, the disease is a severe hindrance to normal life.
Among the symptoms of psoriasis, which worsen the quality of life, the itching of the skin, in second place – joint pain in psoriatic arthritis.
Methods of treatment of psoriasis
Understanding what is psoriasis, you have a better idea of the possible methods of treatment. As a chronic disease, then to cure it. However, you can greatly alleviate the condition of the patient, reducing clinical manifestations. In the framework of an integrated approach to therapy scaly rash is the use of drugs and physiotherapy techniques. There are also people that help to cope with the problem.
Drugs and psoriasis
In this disease the most popular products for external use. Their composition can include multiple components, which prevent excessive division of skin cells, and soften and reduce itching. Names of drugs are different, but they often contain the following substances:
- Glucocorticosteroid hormones, which reduce inflammation and inhibit the reactivity of the immune system. The local application of hormones have a less pronounced systemic effects.
- Vitamin D is part of a large number of drugs for local use. The greatest efficacy for the treatment of psoriasis is shown in combination with UV irradiation.
- Tar is used mainly for the treatment of lesions located in the region of the scalp.
- Activated zinc quickly reduces redness and itching. This component is virtually harmless to the body.
Among drugs for the systemic treatment of psoriasis are:
- corticosteroids, as they regulate the metabolism and eliminate the inflammation, however they have a distinct syndrome;
- cytostatics inhibit cell division of the epidermis, but along with that weaken the immune system, and slow down the regeneration of other tissues;
- immunomodulators contribute to the normalization of immune reactions, but their efficiency is not fully understood;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs only reduce the severity of itching and inflammation but have no effect on the primary change.
Vitamins and anti-allergic drugs are used in addition to the main therapy. Since there is no truly effective medications to combat the psoriasis, it is prescribed in conjunction with physiotherapy.
Among the most frequently procedures used for the treatment of systemic disease is psoriasis, allocate the following:
- Leech therapy where leeches are used. It improves blood circulation and normalizes immune response.
- Fish-doctor, which breeds in the thermal source, helps patients to clear the skin from lesions. During this treatment these fish literally eat the surface layers of plaques on the skin, immersed in water.
- Cryotherapy, during which the patient is placed for several minutes in a chamber with temperature -1300 degree. After the procedure significantly decreases itching and eliminated the phenomena of inflammation and edema.
- PUVA therapy combines phototherapy and chemotherapy. After the introduction of the drug, which accumulates in cells with high ability to regenerate, the patient is irradiated with light. The latter has a certain wave length and helps to activate the photosensitizer. Thus, one can achieve selectivity effects.
Sometimes in the treatment of psoriasis is effective use of homeopathic remedies or folk remedies.
Folk remedies for the treatment of psoriasis
In folk medicine there are many recipes for funds, both for local use and for use inside.
You can cook the ointment and apply it over the plaque. The most popular are the following recipes:
- Mix celandine and lard (1:5), we obtain an effective remedy.
- Grind the flowers of meadowsweet and mix them with vaseline (1:1). Then heated to 900 ° and cooled. Store the ointment is not a long time, so it's best to cook in small portions.
- To connect lard, pine resin and beeswax, heated over a fire, stirring constantly. Then add the vitamin A from the pharmacy.
- Ointment of elecampane helps with worsening of the disease.
Traditional medicines for ingestion are usually aimed at maintaining immunity and reducing inflammation and itching:
- Kvass from oats is prepared from 700 g of grain, three liters of water and five large spoonfuls of sugar. All this should infuse for two days.
- The infusion of Bay leaf is taken orally for 100 ml.
- To prepare a tincture of the buds of the Sophora, it is necessary to take 500 ml of vodka and 50 g of dry raw material, then place in a month in a dark place. Take a teaspoon.
- A decoction of fennel seeds helps to resolve acute symptoms and also has a slight sedative and calming effect.
Patients suffering from psoriasis, what it is for a disease you do not immediately understand. But on the background of chronic, frequent exacerbations, constant itching and a large number of lesions, they often experience psychological discomfort. It often ends in depression and social phobia. Therefore, in the treatment of psoriasis is so important to pay attention not only to elimination of symptoms and normalization of the immune system, and psychological condition of the patient.