According to statistics, the diagnosis "psoriasis" was 3-6% of the total population of the world. Largely he affects people with fair skin. The occurrence of psoriasis often occurs at the age of 15-45 years. It is equally possible in both sexes. Statistics are forced to talk about the disease as a serious problem. Given that the risk is big, the current will be total possession of information about the disease General population.
What is this disease?
Psoriasis is a complicated chronic disease, whose development is connected with functioning of immune cells. They cause inflammation, spreading in the upper layers of the skin. The result is damaged skin, and nails. There is an abnormal growth of the skin and capillaries. This disease is one of the most studied, but now scientists can not give answers to all the questions about its causes. Officially it is recognized as incurable. The disease is accompanied by periods of temporary improvement and relapses.
The second name of psoriasis – psoriasis. It is connected with the appearance of symptoms of the disease in the form of red scaly patches. They protrude above the surface of the skin, have a rough surface with a white coating. But "shingles" is a conditional name, because the microorganisms do not speak here of the cause of the disease.
Scientists there are several theories about the causes of psoriasis.
- It is an autoimmune disease whose causes are rooted in the dysfunction of the immune system. Cells that perform protective functions start to penetrate the upper layers of the epidermis, which leads to the development of the disease. They provokes active cell division of the skin.
- Cause are disorders in the growth, maturation and division of epithelial cells. These changes lead to the fact that immune cells are macrophages and T-lymphocytes are considering skin cells with impairments as sick and attack them.
None of the theories does not give the main answer why there are these immune disturbances and failures? In part due to a lack of knowledge of this disease remains incurable. There are factors that contribute to the development of the disease.
- Genetic predisposition – children have one parent who suffered from psoriasis, the risk is 15-17%, both parents – 25%. But even if among the closest relatives of this disease is not diagnosed, the risk is about 5%.
- Some of the features of the skin – dryness and thinness. According to statistics, the owners of such skin were at greater risk of developing the disease.
- Excessive hygiene – obsession with personal hygiene in this case can play a "cruel joke". Constantly exposing the skin external mechanical impacts in combination with cosmetics, man is destroying its protective barrier and disturbs the immune system.
- External irritants – regular contact with household cleaning products, various alcoholic solutions, cosmetics, etc.
- Taking certain medications – the disease may be one of the side effects. This group of drugs get anti-malarial and anticonvulsant drugs, beta-blockers, antidepressants, lithium carbonate and others.
- Fungal infections and staph statistics notes the large number of cases when the disease started after such infections.
- The tendency to allergic reactions.
- Various "stress" situations for the body – moving, radically changing climate and time zone, nervous stress and depression.
- The presence of harmful habits, especially prolonged adherence to them.
- HIV is one of the common causes of psoriasis. The fact that HIV is decreased activity of lymphocytes, and the cause of psoriasis is increase their activity. But statistics show that AIDS patients more susceptible to other psoriasis.
- Regular traumatic effect on the skin.
Types of psoriasis and its stage
There are three stages:
- Progressive – is accompanied by the appearance of new lesions and lesion larger areas of the skin.
- Stationary – save the size and shape of existing lesions, no appearance of new.
- Retrogressive – there is a decrease in the number of plaques and their size.
The incidence of the species is divided into two groups:
Vulgar – characterized by homogeneous precipitation in the form of plaques or papules — nodules of reddish color, which rises over the skin. Lesions are sharply defined and have a grayish color due to covering their surface with silver-white scales. The size of the plaques can be from 1-2 mm up to 15-20 mm and more. If you lightly scratch the surface of plaques, the surface starts to peel off even more. Also, when removing the surface scales can be allocated mucilaginous epidermal layer, forming a wet surface — the effect of the "terminal film". With a light poskablivanii the shiny surface of the lesions observed phenomenon Auspitz-Politenkova – allocation of droplets of blood, merge with each other, as a result of damage to the fulfilling of the dermal papillae. The main place of localization of this type of psoriasis is the head, the surface of large joints (knee, elbow).
Erythrodermic psoriasis – develops on the background of the progressive of psoriasis vulgaris. The main provoking factors – improper treatment of the disease, premature discontinuation of treatment, neuro-psychiatric factors, concurrent acute infectious diseases. In the course of the disease is active dissemination and confluence of the plaques. The active impact of the negative factors for sudden deterioration can occur rapidly — in just a few hours. Merge to form plaques solid bright red surface with swollen brown and peeling. There may be cracks, General deterioration, – fever, pain in joints and muscles, chills, swollen lymph nodes, etc.
Pustular – more rare; characterized by a severe course and may endanger the patient's life. Allocate about 7 of his forms, the main ones are:
- Generalized – the disease may begin rapidly. The skin is covered with bright red erythema and then it appear pustular rash. She is very sensitive, and the disease is accompanied by severe pain. Lesions coalesce and form suppurative areas that continue its spread to healthy skin areas.The disease has an intermittent recurrence during the first 1-8 weeks. For attenuation foci in some areas the emergence of new neighboring sites. Purulent crusts, dropping out is, bare eroded surface, where it is further very rapid epithelialization.The main areas of localization are entering the areas near the joints, sometimes it is the head, face and even tongue.
- Palmar-plantar pustular (Barber) – striking areas of the hands and feet. But unlike similar forms of psoriasis vulgaris, it the lesions are pustular in nature with purulent contents.
- Arthropathic psoriasis – affects small distal joints. At the initial stage of pain is insignificant, but later begins the generalization process, which is accompanied by swelling of joints, severe pain, a possible limitation of movement and even sprains.
Psoriasis is a systemic disease and is able to affect the skin, nails and hair. The main affected area in most cases be skin. Common symptom for all types of psoriasis — exposed rash is bright red with a rough surface. They are accompanied by severe itching, with an advanced stage — severe pain and worsening of the General condition of the patient. Rashes can affect any parts of the skin, but usually the first symptoms appear in the zone of flexion of the joints, on the head, lower back.
Form which are the papules may have different shapes:
- coin known.
Symptoms of psoriasis on localization:
- The head – formed by precipitation in the form of scaly plaques. They stand above the surface of the head, located under the hair. The latter is not damaged. The scales on the spots resemble dandruff, so the early stages may go unnoticed.
- On the face of the plaque formation on the smooth skin (on my forehead). Their appearance, perhaps, of mucous membranes, e.g. of the mouth, on the tongue.
- On the nails – there is a loss of the plates. This can be the appearance of small pits, similar to the track marks of needle, the type of "thimble". Can cause symptoms resembling fungi – color change, flaking, etc.
- On the joints – precipitation in the form of plaques with scales on the surface. Plaque significantly protrude above the surface.
Symptoms of psoriasis has no single clinical forms and its manifestations are diverse. Of particular danger are the symptoms of systemic lesions, as they say on the combination of several types of psoriasis.
This disease is not contagious! The answer of all experts and scientists. This is important for the formation of relationships to people who suffer with psoriasis in the society. A sick man does not represent any threat to others. The disease is not transmitted by any of possible ways. The question of hereditary predisposition was discussed above.
Methods to diagnose psoriasis
For the diagnosis of disease using the following methods:
- external inspection;
- medical history, including information on hereditary predisposition;
- laboratory tests – General and biochemical blood analysis, determination of cholesterol and glucose, urine analysis on water-salt balance;
- in the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis is x-rays, MRI, puncture the synovial fluid of the joint (type of analysis on prescription individually);
- additional tests to determine the General condition of the patient and the identification of comorbidities.
The impact of the diagnosis on the patient's life
Psoriasis is a chronic disease with highly visible symptoms. Therefore, in most cases, it has a serious impact on the patient's life. Depending on the extent and locations of plaques can cause problems in the first place with the socio-psychological adaptation of the person.
The presence of a rash on exposed parts of the body can also be an obstacle for the professional performance of duties at sites with presence of negative factors of influence. May be restrictions on practicing certain types of sports, visiting public places – swimming pools, for example.
The main problem is psychological complexes, the need to adhere to a certain mode of life and rules of power.
Methods of treatment depend on the type of psoriasis, its stage, localization, General patient's condition and many other factors. It is always a complex treatment. All methods can be divided into groups:
With medical treatment are used by local and systemic medications for internal ingestion. Common is a procedure when the treatment starts with a less active sparing drugs. If their action is ineffective, then they are replaced with more powerful drugs. But even in cases where the treatment the patient is suitable and gives positive results at certain stages of replacement medications for the same. This helps to avoid habituation of the organism and to maintain its positive dynamics. The best effect for the local treatment ointments have. Due to its properties the ointment remains on the skin surface, as is the case with other external preparations, and soften plaque and penetrates. In the initial stages a doctor may be appointed non-hormonal ointments. But the most rapid and qualitative effect of hormonal ointments. On the degree of their effect they are classified into:
- average activity;
- very strong/
Preparations for internal use are classified in the following groups:
- immunosuppressants – aimed at reducing the activity of the immune system (Cyclosporine A);
- drugs whose action is directed to the treatment of malignancies;
- retinoids – exert influence on the process of forming the upper layer of the skin through the elimination of violations; these drugs are derivatives of vitamin A.
Physiotherapy techniques include:
- selective phototherapy;
- laser therapy;
- ultraviolet irradiation;
- x-ray treatments.
The purpose of the procedures individually.
Complex methods of treatment, also formed the basis of the localization of the rash:
- for therapy of hairy part use special medicated shampoos, ointments, masks, and physiotherapy techniques – ultraviolet radiation;
- on the hands and the elbow is assigned to systemic treatment with local preparations and preparations for internal ingestion.
Psoriasis is a complex and difficult to treat disease. It really changes a person's life not for the better. The strength of the patient together with experienced professionals to make life even with this diagnosis, full and happy. The key to this will be the timeliness and regularity of treatment.