Psoriasis is a non-contagious skin disease. There is no clear and suitable therapeutic plan for each patient: the treatment is based on the use of immunosuppressants and healing ointments, it is also possible to use popular and physiotherapeutic agents.
Causes of psoriasis
Psoriasis is a common non-infectious skin disease. In every 30 adults, 1 person has psoriasis. There are no exact data on the origin of dermatosis: there are only a few identified causes that can affect the onset of the disease.
The main prerequisite is considered a genetic predisposition: the presence of a disease in one of the parents gives a 25% chance that the child will also suffer from psoriasis, if both parents are sick, the probability increases by 2 times.
- HIV infection;
- autoimmune diseases (lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, celiac disease);
- stress, prolonged depression;
- endocrine diseases (diabetes, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Ischenko-Cushing syndrome);
- tobacco and alcohol use;
- dehydration of the body;
- hormonal imbalance.
Psoriasis or psoriasis is a multifactorial disease. This means that several prerequisites contributed to the emergence of the disease.
Most often, psoriasis is detected in adults aged 20 to 50 years. The disease is rare in children and the elderly. In men and women, acne occurs equally.
Types, forms and stages of the disease
The course of the disease occurs in 3 stages:
- Progressive. At the initial stage, a rash is actively formed: small spiky spots of red or pink color appear, which grow in plates. Irritations strongly itch, get wet.
- Stationary. The emergence of new eruptions does not occur. Plaques don't grow, but they don't disappear either.
- Regressive. The plaques begin to gradually dissolve from the center, forming red rings on the skin, which also gradually disappear.
A new disease cycle can begin any time after the last stage ends. The duration of remission is strictly individual. If psoriasis is not treated, the disease cycle will continue uninterrupted without remission.
According to the degree of damage to the skin, 3 forms of the disease are distinguished:
- mild - rashes occupy less than 3% of the entire surface of the skin;
- medium - from 3 to 10% of the skin is covered by psoriatic plaques;
- severe - 10% of the skin or more.
Mild and moderate forms of psoriasis, complicated by damage to the connective tissue of the joints, are also recognized as severe.
To visually distinguish one type of dermatosis from another, see how the disease looks in the photo.
With a mild form of the disease, up to 3% of the entire body is covered in scales.
The average form of psoriasis involves 3 to 10% of body coverage.
In severe psoriasis, more than 10% of the body is covered by plaques.
According to the type and location of the rashes, the following types of psoriasis are distinguished:
- Plaque (common, vulgar).The most common type. At an early stage, there are round or oval-shaped inflamed areas covered with gray scales. They appear on the arms, head, shins, neck, face, palms, elbows, back. Then the plaques enlarge and fuse together, forming large itchy sores.
- erythrodermic.Plaque psoriasis in the advanced form. In addition to plaques, redness, swelling, and extensive inflammation with gray scales appear on the skin. Possible rejection of the upper layer of the skin.
- In the form of a drop.Skin irritations are bright red in the form of tiny drops or tears. Rashes are raised above the skin, cause severe burning, itching. A rash appears on the scalp, buttocks, back, neck, shoulders, knees.
- Psoriasis of skin folds or flexing surfaces.Plaques have a smooth surface without scales, located under the mammary glands, in the groin and anus, between the fingers, under the armpits.
- arthropathic.Arthritis occurs in 10% of patients with psoriasis. The joints of the feet and hands become inflamed, which leads to their deformity. Less commonly, psoriasis affects the vertebrae, knees, and hip joints.
- Nail psoriasis.Fingernails and toenails undergo changes: the color turns yellow or whitish, dark spots appear, compaction points and the tips of the nails exfoliate. In rare cases, psoriasis is accompanied by loss of nail plates.
- Pustular (exudative).The most serious of all forms of psoriasis. Fluid-filled blisters appear on the palms, shoulders, shins, and soles of the feet, and the skin around the lesions becomes red and hot.
Pseudopsoriasis is a skin disease that externally resembles one of the types of psoriasis, but does not cause the patient discomfort in the form of itching, burning and pain.
Symptoms of Psoriasis
The first signs of the disease:
- fatigue fatigue;
- the appearance of symmetrical irritations in areas of the body with thin skin.
As the disease progresses, other symptoms appear:
- psoriatic plaques;
- nail and joint damage.
Dermatosis is characterized by rounded skin sores with clear boundaries. Plaque eruptions can connect to each other, increasing the area of the lesion. The irritations cause discomfort and itching. The surface of the plaque is raised above the skin and covered with gray scales, under which there is a bright red film. When the film is injured, the blood is separated - this usually happens during sleep.
The skin of psoriasis patients is extremely sensitive and new plaques appear at the site of injury in a healthy area.
In children, the disease is more severe than in adults. It starts with reddening of the skin folds, which turn into plaques. Signs of childhood psoriasis are most often seen on the head, forehead, lips, palms, mucous membranes, on the priest in babies.
Which doctor should I contact?
If plaque-like rashes appear on the body, contact a dermatologist or dermatovenereologist. If there are no specialists in the medical institution, then you need to make an appointment with an endocrinologist, immunologist or neuropathologist.
Diagnosis of squamous lichen
Psoriasis is usually recognizable by visual inspection for characteristic rashes. If during the examination it was not possible to diagnose the disease, or the cutaneous manifestations are of a specific nature, a differential diagnosis is performed.
- skin test for allergens;
- allergic blood test;
- general analysis of blood and urine;
- hormonal background study;
- Ultrasound of the thyroid and adrenal glands;
- LHC-skin culture for fungi;
- microscopy of a skin sample to detect parasites;
- histological examination of neoplasms;
Treatment of psoriasis is individual - there is no one drug combination that is effective for every patient. Therapy includes the use of medicines inside and out, the use of folk methods and physical therapy.
Pills prescribed for psoriasis are aimed at regulating the functioning of the immune system, ointments for external use - to reduce symptoms and heal.
|immunosuppressants||Inhibit the action of immune cells that attack the skin and joints|
|cytostatics||Prevent the proliferation of atypical skin cells|
|retinoids||Regulates the process of maturation of epidermal cells|
|dermatotropic ointments||They have an anti-inflammatory effect, accelerate tissue regeneration|
|hormonal ointments||Relieve itching and inflammation, promote healing|
Often, vitamin D3 preparations are prescribed for the treatment of dermatoses - the substance improves the well-being of patients and the condition of the skin, and brings the onset of remission closer.
Prescription drugs for psoriasis have a strong effect and cause side effects. Take medication strictly as directed by your doctor.
Folk remedies for fighting at home
To relieve symptoms and cure rashes, try folk remedies:
- Kalanchoe.Choose a fresh leaf and shred it well. Lubricate the rash with Kalanchoe porridge 2 times a day for a period of 2 months.
- Soda.If the plaques are all over your body, take a bath with soda to eliminate the itchiness. Dissolve 500 g of soda in a bath with warm water, it is allowed to add 3-5 drops of tea tree, spruce and mint essential oils. The duration of the procedure is 10 minutes. You can use sea salt instead of baking soda.
- Mumiyo.Prepare the ointment: crush 2 mumiyo tablets, add 10 drops of water and 50 g of soft lard, mix well while heating in a bain-marie. Lubricate the affected areas with ointment 4 times a day.
- Carrot Juice.Drink 200 ml of fresh carrot juice daily. After a week, the skin condition will visibly improve.
- Propolis.Mix pure propolis and butter in a 1: 10 ratio and lubricate the stains 3-4 times a day. Ready ointment must be stored in the refrigerator.
- Celandine.Lubricate the plates with fresh celandine juice daily during their active growth. In 3 months, the skin condition will improve, the intensity of irritation will decrease.
Home remedies are in addition to medical therapy and cannot replace it. Traditional medicine recipes can be used only after the doctor's approval. Do not self-medicate - this can lead to a deterioration of the skin condition.
There are additional treatments for psoriasis:
- hydrotherapy - hydrogen sulfide baths, oxygen, radon baths;
- cryotherapy - treatment of the skin with cold;
- ultraviolet therapy - phototherapy with long-wave UV rays;
- x-ray therapy - treating the affected areas of the skin with x-rays;
- laser therapy - treating irritations with a laser beam.
Additional spa and physical therapy procedures are effective in only 10% of patients.
With psoriasis, in most cases, the prognosis is favorable, with the exception of the arthropathic form.
If the disease is detected at an early stage and treatment is carried out in a complete and timely manner, psoriasis does not pose a threat to human life and eventually goes into remission, which can last up to 2 years or more.
If left untreated, complications arise in the form of psoriatic arthritis, in which the joints of the hands, legs, arms and spine undergo irreversible changes. Sometimes, neglected arthritis deprives a person of the ability to move independently.
It is impossible to get rid of the disease, but there is a chance to minimize its manifestations. Clearly follow the doctor's prescription and follow the recommendations - this will allow you to keep the disease under control and live without discomfort.